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中国半导体之父(全文在线阅读>

中国半导体之父

科学家们发现了控制盐和水消耗的神经机制,这是新闻。______

????最近,《自然》顶级学术期刊的最新一批文章如期发表。其中,有两项研究很有趣:一项研究揭示了人们为什么喜欢咸的食物,另一项研究探讨了口渴的神经机制。这两项研究的发表也表明,科学家们已经在对大脑的理解上迈出了进一步的一步。你的口味有多重?许多人喜欢咸的食物:薯片、炸薯条、爆米花……这些简单的小吃,只需加一点盐,让人爱不释手。从进化的角度来看,“重口味”对身体很重要——毕竟,我们的身体需要摄入这些钠离子,以控制液体平衡并使神经信号的传输成为可能。由于动物本身不能合成钠离子,食物已成为获取钠离子的重要途径。然而,另一方面,摄入过多的钠可能导致心血管风险。所以问题来了……我们的大脑如何控制我们对钠离子的食欲,以达到微妙的平衡?来自加州理工学院陈天桥脑科学研究所的Yuki Oka教授在本文中找到了答案。利用光遗传学,他们用光激活不同的老鼠神经元,观察老鼠的行为变化。他们发现,刺激小鼠后脑的一些神经元后,小鼠突然变重,开始反复舔岩盐。这表明这些神经元可以刺激动物对盐的需求。然后研究人员开始探索什么样的行为会激活或抑制这些神经元。他们发现,在小鼠舌头接触钠离子后的几秒钟内,这些神经元的活动受到抑制。如果舌头表面的钠离子受体受到抑制,就不会出现神经递质。另外,如果将含有钠离子的溶液直接注射到胃中,不会引起神经抑制。这些结果表明,有一个神经回路从舌头到大脑,调节动物的盐摄取。领导这项研究的Yuki Oka教授(照片来源:加州理工学院)说:“想要摄入盐是身体缺乏钠离子的信号。”当钠离子被摄取时,身体需要一段时间来吸收它们。所以,有趣的是,仅仅尝一口钠就能让神经元的活动平静下来。这意味着味觉和其他感觉系统不仅向大脑传递外部信息,而且在调节身体功能方面发挥着更重要的作用。一个多世纪前,科学家们想了解身体如何调节口渴的信号。早期的动物研究表明,口干和舌头,或高血盐水平,可能刺激大脑作出有关饮用水的决定。但是最近,一些研究人员发现胃肠道可能参与了口渴的调节。然而,肠道是否在其中起作用仍然是个谜。在这项研究中,旧金山加利福尼亚大学的Zachary Knight教授结束了肠不仅参与口渴的调节,而且起着重要作用的谜团。首先把时钟拨回2016年。那年,奈特教授的团队发现,当老鼠喝水时,只要水碰到嘴和喉咙,大脑中的一些神经元就会被关闭。这表明这些神经元可能在促进饮酒中起到作用,信号来自口腔和喉咙等部位。_当在肠道中感受到生理盐水时,控制大脑口渴的神经元就会被激活(来源:Knight lab/ucsf/hhmi),但这并不是全部。研究人员发现,这些神经元最初在进食盐水时受到抑制。然而,很快,它们就会重新活跃起来,促使动物继续饮水,就好像身体告诉这些神经元生理盐水并不能真正补充水分一样!那么这些新的信号来自哪里呢?答案是肠道。在今天在线发表的一篇论文中,研究人员发现肠道中有盐受体可以直接与大脑“对话”。如果正常的水进入肠道,控制口渴的神经元保持闭合状态。一旦盐水进入肠道,它就会激活口渴的神经元,让动物继续饮水。”令人惊讶的是,肠道能精确测量盐的浓度!”奈特教授评论道。进一步的研究表明,位于下丘脑的神经元可以从肠、喉和血液中获取大量信号,然后进行综合评估,以确定动物是否口渴。奈特教授指出,该系统的研究经验将有助于其他科学家研究更复杂的系统。参考文献:[1]桑吉

zui jin, zi ran ding ji xue shu qi kan de zui xin yi pi wen zhang ru qi fa biao. qi zhong, you liang xiang yan jiu hen you qu: yi xiang yan jiu jie shi le ren men wei shen me xi huan xian de shi wu, ling yi xiang yan jiu tan tao le kou ke de shen jing ji zhi. zhe liang xiang yan jiu de fa biao ye biao ming, ke xue jia men yi jing zai dui da nao de li jie shang mai chu le jin yi bu de yi bu. ni de kou wei you duo chong? xu duo ren xi huan xian de shi wu: shu pian zha shu tiao bao mi hua zhei xie jian dan de xiao chi, zhi xu jia yi dian yan, rang ren ai bu shi shou. cong jin hua de jiao du lai kan," zhong kou wei" dui shen ti hen zhong yao bi jing, wo men de shen ti xu yao she ru zhei xie na li zi, yi kong zhi ye ti ping heng bing shi shen jing xin hao de chuan shu cheng wei ke neng. you yu dong wu ben shen bu neng he cheng na li zi, shi wu yi cheng wei huo qu na li zi de zhong yao tu jing. ran er, ling yi fang mian, she ru guo duo de na ke neng dao zhi xin xue guan feng xian. suo yi wen ti lai le wo men de da nao ru he kong zhi wo men dui na li zi de shi yu, yi da dao wei miao de ping heng? lai zi jia zhou li gong xue yuan chen tian qiao nao ke xue yan jiu suo de Yuki Oka jiao shou zai ben wen zhong zhao dao le da an. li yong guang yi chuan xue, ta men yong guang ji huo bu tong de lao shu shen jing yuan, guan cha lao shu de xing wei bian hua. ta men fa xian, ci ji xiao shu hou nao de yi xie shen jing yuan hou, xiao shu tu ran bian zhong, kai shi fan fu tian yan yan. zhe biao ming zhei xie shen jing yuan ke yi ci ji dong wu dui yan de xu qiu. ran hou yan jiu ren yuan kai shi tan suo shen me yang de xing wei hui ji huo huo yi zhi zhei xie shen jing yuan. ta men fa xian, zai xiao shu she tou jie chu na li zi hou de ji miao zhong nei, zhei xie shen jing yuan de huo dong shou dao yi zhi. ru guo she tou biao mian di na li zi shou ti shou dao yi zhi, jiu bu hui chu xian shen jing di zhi. ling wai, ru guo jiang han you na li zi de rong ye zhi jie zhu she dao wei zhong, bu hui yin qi shen jing yi zhi. zhei xie jie guo biao ming, you yi ge shen jing hui lu cong she tou dao da nao, tiao jie dong wu de yan she qu. ling dao zhe xiang yan jiu de Yuki Oka jiao shou zhao pian lai yuan: jia zhou li gong xue yuan shuo:" xiang yao she ru yan shi shen ti que fa na li zi de xin hao." dang na li zi bei she qu shi, shen ti xu yao yi duan shi jian lai xi shou ta men. suo yi, you qu de shi, jin jin chang yi kou na jiu neng rang shen jing yuan de huo dong ping jing xia lai. zhe yi wei zhe wei jue he qi ta gan jue xi tong bu jin xiang da nao chuan di wai bu xin xi, er qie zai tiao jie shen ti gong neng fang mian fa hui zhe geng zhong yao de zuo yong. yi ge duo shi ji qian, ke xue jia men xiang liao jie shen ti ru he tiao jie kou ke de xin hao. zao qi de dong wu yan jiu biao ming, kou gan he she tou, huo gao xue yan shui ping, ke neng ci ji da nao zuo chu you guan yin yong shui de jue ding. dan shi zui jin, yi xie yan jiu ren yuan fa xian wei chang dao ke neng can yu le kou ke de tiao jie. ran er, chang dao shi fou zai qi zhong qi zuo yong reng ran shi ge mi. zai zhe xiang yan jiu zhong, jiu jin shan jia li fu ni ya da xue de Zachary Knight jiao shou jie shu le chang bu jin can yu kou ke de tiao jie, er qie qi zhuo zhong yao zuo yong de mi tuan. shou xian ba shi zhong bo hui 2016 nian. na nian, nai te jiao shou de tuan dui fa xian, dang lao shu he shui shi, zhi yao shui peng dao zui he hou long, da nao zhong de yi xie shen jing yuan jiu hui bei guan bi. zhe biao ming zhei xie shen jing yuan ke neng zai cu jin yin jiu zhong qi dao zuo yong, xin hao lai zi kou qiang he hou long deng bu wei. _ dang zai chang dao zhong gan shou dao sheng li yan shui shi, kong zhi da nao kou ke de shen jing yuan jiu hui bei ji huo lai yuan: Knight lab ucsf hhmi, dan zhe bing bu shi quan bu. yan jiu ren yuan fa xian, zhei xie shen jing yuan zui chu zai jin shi yan shui shi shou dao yi zhi. ran er, hen kuai, ta men jiu hui chong xin huo yue qi lai, cu shi dong wu ji xu yin shui, jiu hao xiang shen ti gao su zhei xie shen jing yuan sheng li yan shui bing bu neng zhen zheng bu chong shui fen yi yang! na me zhei xie xin de xin hao lai zi na li ne? da an shi chang dao. zai jin tian zai xian fa biao de yi pian lun wen zhong, yan jiu ren yuan fa xian chang dao zhong you yan shou ti ke yi zhi jie yu da nao" dui hua". ru guo zheng chang de shui jin ru chang dao, kong zhi kou ke de shen jing yuan bao chi bi he zhuang tai. yi dan yan shui jin ru chang dao, ta jiu hui ji huo kou ke de shen jing yuan, rang dong wu ji xu yin shui." ling ren jing ya de shi, chang dao neng jing que ce liang yan de nong du!" nai te jiao shou ping lun dao. jin yi bu de yan jiu biao ming, wei yu xia qiu nao de shen jing yuan ke yi cong chang hou he xue ye zhong huo qu da liang xin hao, ran hou jin xing zong he ping gu, yi que ding dong wu shi fou kou ke. nai te jiao shou zhi chu, gai xi tong de yan jiu jing yan jiang you zhu yu qi ta ke xue jia yan jiu geng fu za de xi tong. can kao wen xian: 1 sang ji

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